Juneteenth is an important historical and joyous holiday that celebrates the abolition of slavery. It begins June 19 and lasts at least that day, a week, or an entire month.

What is Juneteenth?

The Juneteenth celebration commemorates June 19, 1865, when General Gordon Granger and 2,000 troops arrived in Galveston, Texas, to enforce the freeing of slaves. The celebration of Juneteenth (Emancipation Day) began in the streets of Galveston by the former slaves. Today, Juneteenth is celebrated by millions of people throughout the nation.

General Gordon Granger and other officers.
General Gordon Granger (right).

What are the Freedmen’s Bureau
Records?

In March of 1865, the Federal Government created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, later renamed the Freedmen’s Bureau. The goal of the Bureau was to help 4 million slaves make the transition to freedom.

The Freedmen’s Bureau had vast
responsibilities. It provided needful services including rations, medical care,
employment assistance, and support for education. Two hundred hospitals were
built and 4,000 schools were established.

And of course, where such orchestrated government support services were offered, and abundance of records were required. This can be a great resource for those researching their African American roots during this time period.

The Freedmen’s Bureau records include:

  • Documentation of the legalization of marriages entered during slavery
  • Labor contracts (the beginning of share cropping)
  • Military payment registers
  • Hospital logs
  • Former slave owners
  • The number of children an enslaved person had

Searching the Freedmen’s Bureau Records

An example of freedman's bureau records.

Robin Foster, a National Genealogy Examiner and a member of the South Carolina Genealogical Society suggests the Freedman Bureau records are crucial to tracing your African American genealogy back past 1870. Before the growing number of helpful historical record collections online today, a researcher had to travel to national, state, or local archives to have any hope of finding records.

Records from the Slave Era in the U.S. are so valuable because they create the bridge from before the Civil War—when few records existed that mention identifying information about individual slaves—to the 1870s where former slaves began appearing. Records give names, dates of birth, marriage, and death. Additionally, records provide clues to past slave owners and locations.

The value of a single Bureau record to your family tree can be very exciting. Janis Forté, a lecturer, author, and publisher, and Recording Secretary of the Afro-American Genealogical and Historical Society of Chicago, was able to trace back three generations from one record. It even mentioned his slave ancestor’s daughters’ names and their married names. He discovered a great-great uncle had two marriages, one he didn’t know about.

Their records can bridge the
genealogical gap from slavery to freedom.

Source: New on FamilySearch